The Great Wall Site of Qin Dynasty in Ningxia
The site of the Great Wall of King Zhao of Qin Dynasty was built in the twenty-fifth year of King Zhaoxiang of Qin Dynasty (272 BC). It was built to defend against the invasion of the Huns in the south. The Great Wall of the Warring States Period in Yan'an, south of Haolingou Village, Miaogou Township, Wuqi County in the west, enters Zhidan County, Zhifang Township through the territory of Changguanmiao Township and Wuqi Township, and returns to Xuecha Township, Wuqi County. It enters Hongliugou Township, Jingbian County, Yulin District, through the urban and rural fringe of Wuqi County, with a total length of 235 kilometers.
The Great Wall of Qin in Weiyuan was built after King Zhaoxiang of Qin destroyed Yiqu Rong during the Warring States Period. It is one of the oldest sections of the Great Wall in Chinese history. From the west, Killing the King's Tomb at the Thirty-Mile Pave in Lintao East, from the Great Wall Slope of Dongyugou, Shangyang Mountain, enters Weiyuan County through Dierpo, Fanjiawan, Wenchang Palace, Qinwang Temple, Shibaozi, Chenjiawa, Fangjialiang, Chengmo, Gaozuishan, Majiashan, Xiayan Yantan and Yangshan, and enters Longxi County from Yehuwan.
This section of the ancient Great Wall, most of which are about 3 meters high, a few of which are more than 10 meters high, fluctuates along the city walls. Every other mile there are small beacons, ten miles a big beacon, magnificent. The tamping layer under the city placanticline is clear and the Qin tiles are everywhere. The Qinwang Temple at the foot of the Great Wall is said to have been built by Qin Shihuang during his tour of Longxi County (Jun Zhidi Dao) for one night. The later generations built it to commemorate the Qinhuang's tour. The original temple buildings entered three courtyards and were magnificent. There was a theatre hall outside the mountain gate and a deep well in the backyard of the temple called "Qinwang Yinma Jing". There was a thousand-year-old tree beside the well called "Qinwang TieMa tree" inside the temple. In the first year of Chenghua in Kou Ming Dynasty (1465 A.D.), the big bells (2 meters in diameter, 3 meters in height and 4,800 kg in weight) raised by Longzhou, Weihe and Linsan Counties are rare in the world.
Most of the temples of the King of Qin were destroyed by soldiers during the Tongzhi period of the Qing Dynasty. The clock smashed into steel in 1958. There is only one main hall in the backyard (which was rebuilt in 23 years of the Republic of China), one side hall on the left side of the front yard (which was rebuilt in the Qing Dynasty), three rooms in the East Chamber of the courtyard, and all the remaining ruins. The remnants of the side hall murals are written with Lyric poems: "Weishui surging day and night, I do not know when the battle will be over? The remains of the Great Wall are there, but the former princes of Qin are not seen. The Great Wall of Qin Dynasty in Weiyuan County is now protected at the provincial level.
The site of the Great Wall of Qin Dynasty was discovered in 1987 in two places. A village of Zhuanshui Miao in Balasu Town in the South and Xiangyang Village in Bulanghe Township in the north is 25 kilometers long and continuous. The widest part is 30 meters and the height is about 1 meter. There are many tamping layers, but the tamping marks are not obvious.
The other one is from the south of Balasu Qiao Jiaduo in the east to Jingjie Village in Hongshiqiao Township in the west. It is 14 kilometers long. The remnant walls stretch intermittently. The compacted soil layer is 15-20 centimeters thick. The remaining piers are 9 meters wide and 5 meters high. Along these two sections of the ancient Great Wall site, a large number of white grey pottery, sanded grey pottery, black pottery and a small amount of red pottery fragments were found, on which the decorations were mostly blue, thick and thin rope waves, square and accumulation patterns. At the same time, the single foot of pottery pelts and its debris, stone artifacts and quadrilateral iron arrows, which were commonly used in the Warring States Period, were also found. It is the site of the Great Wall from the Warring States Period to the Qin and Han Dynasties. According to the biography of Xiongnu in the Han Dynasty, "Meng died peacefully in more than ten years. The princes rebelled against Qin and China was disturbed. All those who migrated to the frontier in the Qin Dynasty returned. Hence the Huns were lenient, crossing Henan and releasing the old fortress along the border with China. The so-called "old fortress" refers to the Great Wall of Qin built by King Zhaoxiang of Qin Dynasty and found in Yulin today.
In Baotou, besides the Zhao Great Wall built by King Wuling of Zhao in earlier period, there is also a relatively complete Qin Great Wall.
In the thirty-second year of Qin Shihuang (215 B.C.), General Meng Tin of Qin Shihuang sent 300,000 troops to attack the Huns in the north and take Henan. In order to prevent the invasion of the nomadic people in the north, the Great Wall was built from Minxian County in Gansu Province in the west to Liaodong County in Liaoning Province in the east. It extends from Ningxia to Inner Mongolia, from Langshan to the east, through Xidoupu, Yinhao and Damiao Township in the north of Guyang County, Baotou City, into Wuchuan County, through the eastern part of Daqingshan Mountain, and into Hebei Province.
The total length of the Qin Great Wall in Baotou City is about 120 kilometers. Most of it is built on the northern slope of mountains, dangerous on the hillside, taking advantage of the situation on the slope. The valleys, passes and plains are mostly built with rammed earth, while the mountains are mostly built with stone masonry or earth-rock mixtures. Generally, the remains of the Great Wall are well preserved. The exterior wall is generally over 4 meters high, the base width is 4 meters, and the top width is about 2 meters. Standing high, the Great Wall can still be seen up and down the mountain, like a dragon, every other section can still distinguish the ancient beacon fire and the remains of the barrier city. Inside and outside the Great Wall of the Qin Dynasty in Baotou, there are 8 to 9 ancient city ruins, around which pottery pieces from the Qin Dynasty to the early Western Han Dynasty can often be found.
Qincheng not only has its own style in the construction method, but also has certain characteristics in the construction of defense facilities. The Great Wall of Qin Dynasty is famous for its magnificent and magnificent stone architecture. It is the treasure of the Chinese nation and the miracle of the world architectural history. It is also the symbol of the brilliant history and splendid culture of the Chinese nation.
Minxian Qincheng Great Wall Site
In the 33rd year of Qin Shihuang (214 B.C.), general Mengtan was sent to build the Great Wall with 300,000 people, Lintao in the West and Liaodong in the east. Where is the beginning of the western end of the Great Wall of Qin Dynasty? In recent years, scholars in Lintao have made some useful investigations on this issue, and their achievements are gratifying. However, some comrades confuse the ancient Lintao with the present Lintao. The historical basis is inadequate. There is a section of the Great Wall of Qin in Lintao today, but it was built by King Zhao of Qin Dynasty, while the city built by Shihuang extends its starting point to the west of Minxian County due to its extensive development.
According to the Records of Nine Regions of Yuanfeng, there are no monuments in Xizhou (now Lintao), and the Great Wall of Qin is in Minzhou. In the Tang Dynasty, "Yuanhe County Records", Song Dynasty "Taiping Huanyu Records", Ming Dynasty "Reading Historical Records of Fangyu" and Wang Guoliang's "Textual Research on the Ancient Great Wall of China" and other documents, it is said that "the starting point of the Qin Great Wall is Minxian County". Du You's "Tongdian County Code" says under Minzhou Article: "The Qin Great Wall is located in Kongtong Mountain, 20 miles west of the county, from Taoshui by the mountain to the east, that is, Lintao County of Qin Dynasty." Kongtong Mountain is the Wutai Mountain of Dagouzhai in the west of Minxian City. This is the turning point of Taohe River, opposite to the Drummer Site in Minshan Township. Tieguanmen Village under Dagouzhai Mountain is the starting point of the Qin Great Wall. In the past, there were signs, which were destroyed by villagers.
The Great Wall of Qin Dynasty originated in Minxian County and has a large number of relics and sites to prove. First, Minxian has a large amount of Qin currency. In 1947, a Qin Dynasty kiln was discovered in Zhongbao Village, Minxian County. Tens of thousands of copper coins were unearthed in half of the Qin Dynasty. Secondly, there were extensive Qin tile remains. A large number of Qinwa cloth points are quite wide. Longwangtai in the east of the city, Baita Temple and Bandagou in Minshan Township in the north of the city are common. In Minxian City, there are more Qinwa in Yejiaya Culture Accumulation (in Minxian Hospital nowadays), and there are many artificial trenches in the northern mountain area of Minxian County. Zhuoping ditch is located in the northwest side of Zhuoping, about 40 kilometers away from the county town. The trench is composed of two parts. One stretches downward along the southwest side of the ridge and reaches the Taohe beach directly through the secondary platform. It is about 4 kilometers long. The local people call it the "ancient city trench". The other one is located at the front of the foot of the mountain, which is adjacent to the ancient city trench at the edge of the stream ditch and extends northwest to the south of Maliantan Village, about 1.5 kilometers long. The local people call it "Hu Dao". The ancient city trench is 5-11 meters wide and more than 5 meters deep. The trench bottom has been reclaimed by villagers and turned into farmland. Local villagers say that "ancient City trenches exist forever." We infer from the collected tiles that this is the site of the Qin people. The starting point of the Qin Great Wall is the closure of the railway in Shili Township, and the trenches in Zhuoping are strong evidence. There is no doubt that the site of the Great Wall is located in Minxian, and the first place is Minxian.