Chinese history From China Chinese civilization To the present history. China has a long history. Since the Huangdi tribe Ji Xuanyuan (also known as the Gong sun Xuanyuan) period has been counted for about 5000 years. Three emperors and Five Sovereigns It took about 4600 years to calculate. Xia Dynasty It has been around for nearly 4100 years; from China's first grand unification. Centralized system Of Qin Dynasty About 2240.
China has experienced many changes in power. Dynasty Change was also the most powerful in the world. Country ,Economics , Culture , science and technology The world is attracting attention.
Prehistoric times in China Yan Huang two emperors were honored as the Chinese nation. Human ancestor 。
About 2070 B.C., the earliest country in China. Xia Dynasty Appear. Eastern Zhou Dynasty It has promoted the development of productive forces and social changes, and has formed ideologically. Contention of a hundred schools of thoughtThe situation. In 221 BC, First Emperor of Qin The first unified autocracy in Chinese history has been established.Centralization Empire - Qin Dynasty , Western Han Dynasty Further consolidate and develop. Great unification The situation.Three Kingdoms, two Jin, and two Southern Dynasties China fell into a separatist regime. fifth century invasion of China by northern nomads During the period, the trend of alien integration in China was strengthened, and many ethnic groups gradually converged in the clash of separate regimes. Sui and Tang Dynasties The central government has closer ties with the minority nationalities in the border areas, and the economic prosperity and the development of science and technology are highly developed. Song and Yuan Dynasties During the period, multiculturalism collided and mingled with each other, and the economy and technology developed to a new height. The Ming Dynasty During the heyday, social and economic development was highly developed, and appeared in the south of the Yangtze River at the end of Ming Dynasty. The germ of capitalism 。
In the middle of nineteenth Century, Opium War After that, China began to become Semi colonial and semi feudal society。 1911 Revolution of 1911 And overthrow it. Monarchy And established a republican system of government. high Qing officialAfter death, China entered the period of warlord separation. After the national revolution, Land revolution , Counter-Japanese War as well as War of Liberation It was finally set up in 1949. The People's Republic of China 。 It also went from 1966 to 1976.The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution 。 China began to implement after 1978. Reform and Opening-up Policy, China's rapid economic development, in 2011, China surpassed Japan to become the world's second largest economy.
See also: Yuanmou people , Beijing people , Lantian people , Cave man , Hemudu people , Yangshao culture,dawenkou culture
China History The source is distant and the stream long, Ancient times Long, self Yellow Emperor Ji Xuanyuan of the dynasty (also known as Kung sun Xuanyuan) (before 2717- 2599 BC)
The period has been around 5000 years ago. It is generally believed that The Chinese people Direct civilization Source There are two. The Yellow River civilization and Yangtze civilization Chinese civilization is mainly a result of the exchange, integration and distillation of these two regional civilizations. Some historians believe that in the history of human civilization, the definition of "historical era" is derived from the creation of words. Prehistoric age " China There are legends in history. Fu Xi create Eight Diagrams " Yellow Emperor Period " Cang Jie Invention Written words And so on, but they are uncertified. Modern Archaeology It was discovered more than 3350 years ago (1350 BC). Shang Dynasty OfOracle About 4000 years ago to 5000 years ago, Tao Wen, about 5000 years ago to 7000 years ago, has the character of the tortoise bone inscription symbol.
Chinese Primitive society It started about 1 million 700 thousand years ago. Yuanmou people , Primitive society Gone through Original Crowd and clan commune The two period. The clan commune has gone through it again. Matriarchal commune and Paternal clan commune The two stage.
Yuanmou people It is the earliest known human being in China. Beijing people It is a typical period of primitive population.Cave man The life of the matriarchal commune has already passed. Yangtze river basin Of Hemudu Site clan and The Yellow River Basin Of Banpo clan yes Matriarchal clan The prosperity of the commune. dawenkou culture Reflected in the middle and late stages. Paternal clan Commune situation.
See also: Yan Di, Yellow Emperor , Yao , Shun , Yu
In legend, Huang Di lived in the the Yellow River valley about 4000 years ago.
Primitive tribe Tribal alliance Chief. He advocated planting. Five grains Domestication of livestock makes the tribal alliance stronger. He led the tribes to defeat the upper reaches of the Yellow River. Yan Di Tribes and the NorthChi You Tribe. Later, Yan Di tribes and Huang Di tribes formed an alliance and lived and thrive in the the Yellow River Valley for a long time. Cathaysian The backbone components. During his reign, Huang Di planted hundreds of grains and plants, vigorously developed production, and began to make clothes, build boats, make rhyme and create medicine. Huang Di was honored as the ancestor of the Cathaysian. This is the handle. Chinese nation Be called All the children of the Yellow Emperor The origin.
After Yan Di and Huang Di, the outstanding leaders of the the Yellow River River tribal alliance successively had Yao , Shun , Yu 。 At that time, the leaders of the tribal Union were elected. Yao Aged, convened Tribal alliance At the meeting, we elected Chafford's Shun as his successor. After the death of Yao, Shun inherited the position of Yao, and Shun was very old. He also took the same way to give up his position to water control. Yu 。 This method of replacing the leader position is known as " Buddhist meditation " 。
Pre Qin Period
See also: Xia Dynasty , Shang Dynasty , Zhou Dynasty , Western Zhou Dynasty , Eastern Zhou Dynasty , The spring and Autumn period and the Warring States Period
Huang Di, the tribe of Yan Di, became Cathaysian, from twenty-first Century BC to sixteenth Century BC. China The first dynasty - Xia Dynasty. It marks the end of the primitive society of China for several thousand years, and since then thousands of years of class society began, and his birth has become an important milestone in the history of Chinese civilization. In the Xia Dynasty, there were fourteen people and seventeen kings in the Xia Dynasty, which lasted for nearly five hundred years.
Xia Yu managed the water with merit, and became the founder of the Xia Dynasty. Yu is the throne after all. Yang ZhaiZengdou and Pingyang. He repeatedly joined the princes and divided China into Kyushu. Tribute Fu The system.
Yu It has not only managed floods but also conquered Li Miao. the third of the three legendary emperors who created the Chinese state Honorific title. After his death, Xia Qi, Da Yu's son, broke the tradition of self preservation and restored himself to the throne. Since then, the king's biography has not passed on to the sages and initiated the hereditary system. The fifth sons fled to Taikang.
When Xia Qi ascended the throne, he could inherit the cause of Dayu. Unfortunately, his son died. Taikang Incompetent
A princes and legends Chang'e Husband Hou Yi By all means. Hou Yi became the brother of Taikang after Taikang died. Chung Kang For Xia Wang, but the manipulation of real power is in Hou Yi's hands. After the death of Zhong Kang, his son was upright. Hou Yi was killed by his officials and killed by himself. When the queen of the phase was killed, the queen was pregnant, and fled to the place where she was still alive. When he grew up, he gathered the remaining force of Xia, destroyed the cold and restored the Xia Dynasty. Shi called " Shao Kang Zhongxing " When he was in power, Shao Kang's son had a relatively strong force, which completely eliminated the power of the cold Han and expedition East Yi, which brought the Xia Dynasty to its peak. The following five dynasties and six kings were relatively stable in society and sustained in economic development. The rule of the Xia Dynasty, east to East China Sea, West Link West River, North and Yanshan South of the Yangtze Huaihe River. At that time, better bronze had been smelted, and many bronze producing tools and living utensils had been produced. There are relatively advanced methods of Yin-Yang and calendar. Kong Jia, the fifteenth generation Xia Wang, was a good master of ghosts and gods, and caused the rebellion of princes. The Xia Dynasty gradually declined. Kong Jia Again and again, he went to Xia Jie, a famous tyrant in history. He did not want to cultivate virtues and extravagance. He killed countless people. He spent all his troops in the army.
Businessman legend is the son of emperor. Deeds The descendants of Qi were founded by Shun Zuo Yu because of their outstanding contributions to water conservancy. After five hundred years of development, Cheng Tang (that is, Shang Tang) has become a powerful country in the capital of Bo. stay Yi Yin With the help of the Tang Dynasty, Cheng Tang first sought the support of many other countries, and sought out the country that did not return to the motherland, and finally launched a campaign to cut down the summer. Singing note World War I, cruel and oppressive person The army fled to the South nest and died, and the Shang Dynasty was established.
Although the newly established Shang Dynasty has no difference from the Xia Dynasty in its social form, its birth has injected new vitality into the ancient society after all, and has perfected the mechanism of ancient class society. Therefore, the ancient book made a full affirmation to the issue of "Shang Wu Jie Jie Xia".
The grandson of Shang Tang Tai Jia When he was in office, there was no way. Yi Yin banished him from himself.
Act as regent. In the three year, tajia was repentant, and he returned to the throne to restore, to be industrious and frugal, to love the people, to be attached by the princes, and to maintain social stability. Since then, it has been the period of consolidation and development of the ninth dynasties. In the eighth generation of Shang Wang Yong, there was a situation where there were no princes. Tai Wu succeeded to the throne. Under the help of Yi Zhi and Wu Xian, Yin Road revived and the princes returned. Tai Wu It's called Chung Chung.
From tenth emperors Zhong Ding At first, there was chaos in the royal family. After the Five Dynasties and nine kings, many times the power struggle to abolish the son and the younger brother or son, and the younger brother and son contended for the throne, and moved to the capital many times.First, the emperor "River" moved to the capital, and then emperor Di moved to Xing. Nine world chaos It has caused serious social problems, the decline of national strength, the absence of princes, contradictions and crises. Pan Geng In order to save the Dynasty's crisis, the capital was moved from Xingyi to Yin, so that the situation was stabilized, and politics, economy and culture began to develop rapidly. Historical namePan Geng moved to Yin 。 The twenty-second generation businessman Wang Wu Ding grew up in the countryside and learned about the hardships and difficulties of farming. From the eyes of the slaves, he promoted and promoted Fu as the prime minister. He made great efforts to reform politics and made the nobility and civilians complain. He repeatedly dispatched troops to settle the earthwork, and the invasion of the nomadic people, such as ghosts and peasants, developed to a great height on the forces of Jinghe and Chu, and the forces of Shang Dynasty.
Since the twenty-four generation of Wang Zujia, social contradictions have intensified, and the Yin Dynasty has gradually become chaotic. The twenty-seventh generation of Wang Wuyi had no way to take up the blood and to shoot it. Later, when he was hunting in the river, he was killed by electric shock. To the thirtieth generation of Kings Zhou At that time, the struggle between royalty and aristocracy was developed. King Zhou is self possessed, intelligent, opinionated, overdressed, extremely obscene and extravagant. He is drunk and dreams of death. He uses wine as a pool, hanging meat as a forest, and making a drink for the night. King Zhou punishment in which a prisoner walks on a slippery metal beam kept hot by coal underneath And slaughtered the nobles. The abuse of torture and aggravation of convergence made the princes, nobles and small people rebel against each other. During the deepening crisis, King Zhou also used troops on the outlying tribes on a large scale and settled down the East Yi, which consumed a lot of manpower and material resources and accelerated the demise of the Shang Dynasty. The Western Zhou people took advantage of the development and finally got rid of it. Shang Dynasty 。
· Western Zhou Dynasty
The Western Zhou Dynasty (1046 BC - 771 BC), from Wu King to quotient to the founding of the people, to the king's conquest, has lasted for more than 300 years. It is an important period in China and the heyday of Chinese classical civilization. Material and spiritual civilization has a profound influence on the development of later history.
The first week is an ancient tribe in the Loess Plateau of the Central Plains. The legendary ancestor of Zhou people is the son abandoned by the imperial concubine, Jiang Fei. Gradually developed into a new western power, calling itself Zhou. Zhou
Development, make Shang Zhou Feel threatened, and will Xi Bo Chang Imprisonment for seven years. Zhou people ransom the Hebrew with treasures and beauties, and Xi Bo Chang Ji good virtue, develop production, so that more princes come to return and become the so-called "masters of fate", and they call themselves king, Zhou Wen Wang, and move the capital to Fengyi. King Wen of Zhou Death. Its son hair The throne is called King Wu. Continue the unfinished business of King Wen. The capital was extended to the east of Fengshui. King Wen was ordered eleventh years in December. Wu Wang came out of Tongguan and joined forces with all the other countries. He sent his troops to the East and defeated the Shang Dynasty troops in Makino in February the next year, killing Yin. King Zhou History called King Wu quotient and established the longest Dynasty dynasty in the history of China.
After the establishment of the king of Wu, the great ministers of the great ministers were said to have sealed up seventy-one princes. The purpose of the founding of the state is to strengthen the rule of all parts of the country and serve as a shield for the Zhou royal family. When the king was young, the world was set up. Guan Shu and Cai Tsai disagreed with him, and Wu Geng, the son of Yin Zhou, led Huai Yi to start rebellion. Zhou Gong resolutely suppressed the rebellion. In order to strengthen the rule of the East, Zhou Gong served as the king's destiny to build the work of Luoyi. After the completion of Luoyi, Cheng Wang himself came to Wangcheng, Luoyi, the general assembly of the world and the four Yi kings, and moved the adherents who followed the rebellion of Wu Geng. Cheng Zhou For control. Zhou Gong also made Li Yue music, established various systems of the Zhou Dynasty and established a political system centered on patriarchal clan system.Cheng had personally sought to suppress East Yi, so that the East could be stabilized. After the death of King Cheng, the successor king of Kang inherited the business of the former king, worked hard in politics, and was easy to get close to the people.
The three dynasties of Wu, Cheng and Kang were politically clear and bright, and they were the golden age of Zhou. When the king of Zhao appeared, there was a crisis. Zhou Zhao Wang was the son of heaven. When he visited the Hanshui River in the south, he was plotted by a boatman with a special glue boat and was buried in the belly of the fish. In order to restore the prestige of the Zhou Dynasty, Zhou Mu Wang set up a new post of Tai servant to strengthen the central management of the imperial court in order to restore the prestige of the Zhou Dynasty. He formulated the criminal law and reduced the penalty so as to strengthen the control of the subjects and put the good administration in the world. He went west for dog and Rong, and south to the Yi people. He actively defended the invasion of remote ethnic groups and stopped looting. The king of Dongping also had the rebellion of Xu Yan king, and the southern part of the kingdom of Chu.
Later, the Zhou Dynasty gradually declined, and the four dynasties, including King, Yi king, Xiao Wang and Yi Wang, had been invaded by the narrow military circles around the country. The dynasty was in a long war and consumed a lot of national power. Some aristocrats also began to go bankrupt, showing the resentment of reality.
The successor Zhou Liwang not only did not take measures to pacify the people and develop the people's livelihood, instead, he appointed ministers, lavish profligacy, fought abroad all the year round, and intensified the deprivation and monopolized the interests of the mountains and rivers, causing people's dissatisfaction and discussion. He sent the wizard to watch and kill the people who talked, which made the contradiction more acute. Three years later, the angry residents of the city finally launched a riot and sent the king to exile to the *. They were jointly held by Zhou Gong and Zhao Gong. In the first year of the Republic, 841 BC, Chinese history has been clearly and continuously dating from this year. After Zhou Liwang's death, his son Xuan Wang rectified his political affairs and revived the Zhou Dynasty. But to the twelfth generation of EmperorsKing You of Zhou At that time, the Dynasty's crisis was even more serious. There are serious natural disasters such as earthquakes, landslides and river drained in Guanzhong area. Zhou Yu king not only does not care for the victims, but is more extravagant and corrupt. In order to win the imperial concubine Praise and praise A smile, the king's beacon fire. The most serious problem is that the king decided to abolish the queen Shen, kill Prince Taizi, and set up another queen as the queen.Shen Hou's father, Shen Hou, joined the Western tribes in the army to attack the king of Zhou. He killed the king of the king under the Mount Li and took away the praise. When the son of Yi king was moved to the throne, Guanzhong was robbed and destroyed by weapons, and the dogs came to harassment from time to time. Zhou Ping Wang Yi Pu had to move the capital to Luoyi, which was called eastward relocation of the Ping Wang and began in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty.
· The spring and Autumn period and the Warring States Period
In the spring and Autumn period, the spring and Autumn period, the first 770 years - the first 476 years (the other 770 years ago 403 years ago) belong to a period of Eastern Zhou Dynasty. Duke Huan of Qi , Prince Wen of Jin , Duke Xiang of Song , Duke Mu of Qin , King Zhuang of Chu It is called "spring and autumn five hegemony". (a) yes. Duke Huan of Qi , Prince Wen of Jin , King Zhuang of Chu , King Fu Chai of Wu , Yue King Gou Jian ) After the spring and Autumn period, it was the Warring States period.
The name of the spring and Autumn period was revised by Confucius. spring and autumn It was named after that. This book records the history from Lu Yin (722 BC) to Lu AI Gong fourteen years (481 BC). For the sake of convenience, modern scholars generally call it "the spring and Autumn Period" from Zhou Ping, Wang Yuannian (770 BC) to the forty-three weeks of King Zhou Jing (477 BC).
According to historical records, two hundred and forty-two years in the spring and Autumn Period
Among them, forty-three monarchs were killed by their lords or enemy countries, and fifty-two princes were destroyed, more than 480 battles of size and war, and four hundred and fifty times of princes' recruitment and League meetings.
With the development of water conservancy, the use of iron and the extension of cattle ploughing, the economy of all the countries in the middle and late spring and autumn developed, and the political situation also changed accordingly. The power of the Qing Dynasty in the princes has gradually developed, such as the three Huan of Lu state, the Tian family of Qi and the six ministers of Jin State. They use their economic strength to control and divide the offices and fight with each other to expand their territory. The six ministers of Jin state finally fought to the end, leaving the three Koreas, Wei and Zhao. In the twenty-three years of King Zhou Weilie (403 BC), Zhou Wang officially recognized three princes. In eleven years (391 BC), Tian min abolished Qi Kang, and became king of himself. He was also recognized by Zhou Wang. The victory of Sanjin and Tianshi announced the cruel political rule that the strong survive and the weak eliminate. Thus, with the reform of Li Kui as the starting point, various countries scrambled to carry out the reform movement aimed at enriching the country and strengthening the army. The core of reform is to Worker Fixed to land to increase Country The tax revenue. With the deepening of social civilization, the rulers rapidly expand their materialistic enjoyment. The most direct way to increase the amount of exploitation is to rob more land, and the most convenient way to seize land is war.
Therefore, this period of war is frequent. According to statistics, from Zhou Yuan Wang Yuannian (475 BC) to Qin Wang sixteen years (221 BC) two hundred and fifty-five years, there are two hundred and thirty wars of scale. When the war is fought, the two sides will easily move tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands of people. In the end of the Western Han Dynasty, Liu Xiang compiled all kinds of historical data into a book. Strategies of the Warring States Period From then on, this historical stage is called the Warring States period.
Qin and Han Dynasties
See also: Qin Dynasty , Han Dynasty
Qin Dynasty (the first 221 years) is Chinese history On the first multi-ethnic college.
Institutionalism Centralization Of Great unified dynasty 。 First Emperor of Qin A series of measures to consolidate autocratic centralization have a significant impact on later generations. Qin reunification, in order to defend Xiongnu The South invaded the northern part of the Qin, Zhao and Yan regions. The Great Wall On the basis of this, it extended to the two sections of East and West, and built a Road West. Lintao East to Liaodong City defense. This is the famous one. The Great Wall 。 The tyranny of the ruler of Qin led to Peasant's War The outbreak of the Qin Dynasty and the collapse of the Qin Dynasty.
The Han Dynasty is the dynasty that appeared after the short Qin Dynasty in Chinese history. It was divided into two periods: the Western Han Dynasty (the first 202 years to 8 years) and the Eastern Han Dynasty (25 ad - 220 AD).
Western Han Dynasty Built for the Han Emperor Liu Bang, the capital of Changan was built, and the Eastern Han Dynasty was Emperor Han Guang Wu. reigned as Guangwu Di Established and built in Luoyang. There were Wang Mang usurped the Han Dynasty Short duration of self reliance New dynasty (AD 8 - ad 23). In addition, some scholars put the Shu Han into the Han Dynasty and put it in the Han Dynasty. So the destruction of Han Dynasty was in 263 years, but most of the statements were attributed to the Shu Han regime established by Liu Bei in the history of the Three Kingdoms.
During the Han Dynasty from Han to the Han Dynasty, the economic strength rose straight and became the first empire in the East. It was also called the two great empire with West Rome. Great powers in Central Asia and western regions are also afraid. By the time of Emperor Wudi, the Han Empire had become the most powerful empire in the world. Xiongnu EmpireDefeated and fled to the north. Zhang Qian's first visit to the western region opened up the famous " The Silk Road "Opening the path of trade between the East and the west, China has since become the center of the world trade system until the Mongolian rebellion more than one thousand years later. It is because of the prestige of the Han Dynasty that foreigners began to address the Chinese as "Han people", and Han people liked to call themselves like this. Han became the eternal name of the Chinese nation since then.
At the beginning of the Han Dynasty, according to the five virtues, Liu Bang was established in the Han Dynasty. Martial Emperor When Wang Mang was established as a new dynasty, he used Liu Xiang, Liu Hsin and his son to think that Han Dynasty belonged to fire Germany. After the restoration of the Han Dynasty, Emperor Guangwu officially accepted this statement. Since then, the Han Dynasty has been established as the "fire Germany", and the Eastern Han Dynasty and the later historical books, such as Han Shu and the Three Kingdoms, have adopted this statement. Therefore, the Han Dynasty was sometimes called "Yan Han" and was called "Yan Liu" because of the emperor's surname Liu in the Han Dynasty.
The Han Dynasty was Liu Bang, the Han Emperor.
The second unified dynasties in China.Changan is also known as the capital. Western Han Dynasty The former Han Dynasty and the later capital capital Luoyang. Eastern Han Dynasty Later Han Dynasty. The Han Dynasty was a powerful and prosperous Dynasty in the early days of the feudal society of China. It inherited and consolidated the unified country that began in Qin Dynasty. Its economic prosperity, strong national strength and people's well-being showed a scene of peace and prosperity. During this period, China has been standing in the forest of the world in the face of a world power. Therefore, the Han Dynasty was regarded as the first golden period in Chinese history. The fourteen emperors in the Western Han Dynasty experienced 210 years ago.
The Han Dynasty is an important period in the history of the development of the Chinese nation.Since Qin Shihuang's reunification with China, the cultures of all countries had infiltrated and fused each other in the early Warring States period. In the Western Han Dynasty, the Chinese region gradually became unified in the system of laws, languages, cultures, customs and habits, forming a common Han culture. Since then, there has been a unified Han nationality in all ethnic groups in China. The Han and the surrounding minorities are members of the Chinese multi-ethnic country in the Han Dynasty. Because of the high degree of civilization, the Han nationality has always been in the leading position among all the brotherly peoples in China. This is the result of historical development and natural formation. Although the names of dynasties in Han Dynasty have changed, the status of Han nationality as the main Chinese nation has not changed.
Three Kingdoms, two Jin, and two Southern Dynasties
From 220 AD Cao Pi Jian Wei, to 589 ad Sui Dynasty Unification is a feudal state in Chinese history.
The period of division and national integration.
after Yellow towel Uprising Heavy blow, Eastern Han Dynasty The regime is dead in name only. In the process of suppressing the uprising, some military blocs were left behind. Cao CaoDefeated in Guandu Yuan Shao Basically, the north is unified. Battle of Chibi Cao Cao was defeated by Liu Bei and Sun Quan and returned to the north. The status of Sun Quan and Liu Bei has been consolidated. In 213 years, Cao Cao called Wei Gong. Wei 。 In the 220 year, Cao Pi, his son, became emperor; in 221 years, Liu Bei In the 222 year, Sun Quan was appointed by Cao Pi as king of Wu and founded Wu Kingdom. In 229 years, he became emperor and the Three Kingdoms became a tripartite situation. Three countries During the period, all countries' economies were developing.
The Three Kingdoms later period, Wei The power is growing stronger. In the 263 year, Wei destroyed Shu Han. 265 years,Sima Yan Seize the establishment of Wei regime Jin dynasty Shi Shi Western Jin Dynasty 。 In the 280 year, the Western Jin Dynasty put an end to the situation of the Three Kingdoms. The unification of the Western Jin Dynasty is short term, because class contradictions and national contradictions are becoming increasingly acute.
Internally movingEthnic minority The uprising and rebellion of the refugees eventually led to the collapse of the Western Jin Dynasty.
After the death of the Western Jin Dynasty, the royal family Si Ma Rui stay JiangnanEstablishment of political power Eastern Jin Dynasty 。 Rulers of various nationalities in North China have established many countries. the Sixteen Kingdoms 。 In 383 years, the the Yellow River River Basin was unified. Former Qin Between the Eastern Jin Dynasty and the Eastern Jin Dynasty Battle of Fei River In the Eastern Jin Dynasty, victory was won. Shortly afterwards, the collapse of the former Qin Dynasty resulted in a confrontation between the north and the south. In the south, after the Eastern Jin Dynasty, I experienced Song Dynasty , Qi , beam , Chen Four dynasties, known as history Southern Dynasties In the north, I experienced Northern Wei Dynasty , Eastern Wei Dynastyand Western Wei Dynasty , Northern Qi and Northern Zhou Dynasty Five Dynasties, known as history Northern Dynasties 。Northern and Southern Dynasties During the period, the south of the Yangtze River was developed, and the great integration of various nationalities appeared in the north. Emperor Xiaowen of the Northern Wei Dynasty The reform has further promoted the integration of nationalities.
Three countries During the Jin, southern and Northern Dynasties, due to the great integration of different nationalities and the development of the north and south economy, science and culture had been further developed, and achieved the world's leading achievements in many fields.
Sui and Tang Dynasties
The Northern Zhou Dynasty in the Sui Dynasty
The Northern Zhou Dynasty unified most areas, and the remaining ones were weak. In 581 ad, Yang Jian usurped the throne of the Northern Zhou Dynasty. Yang Jian's usurpation not only benefited from the accident of Emperor Xuan's collapse in the Northern Zhou Dynasty, but also gained the opportunity to control the central government by courting his assistant. Yang Jian relied on the powerful imperial power accumulated in the two dynasties of Emperor Wu of the Northern Zhou Dynasty, consolidating his rule base, and finally usurped the state Zuo of the Northern Zhou Dynasty. In the nine year of emperor Kai (589 AD), Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty went down to destroy Chen. Sui Wendi and Yang Jian have made many reforms.Politically, he strengthened the feudal centralization system with the establishment of the political system of "three provinces and six ministries", and in economy, he promoted the development of agriculture by adopting the Mu system since the Northern Dynasty. In culture, Emperor Sui Wen advocated Buddhism. Shortly after Suiti's accession to the throne, the excessive atrocious rule and rule led to the collapse of the Sui dynasty ruled by a large-scale peasant uprising. In the Sui Dynasty, Yang Guang caused an extremely serious chaos at the end of the Sui Dynasty, resulting in a sharp decline in the population to more than 200 million households. It left behind a serious split at the end of the Sui Dynasty.
Early Tang Dynasty
When Li Yuan and Li Shimin started their troops, only one place in Taiyuan, after entering Guanzhong, in 618 ad, Li Yuan established the Tang Dynasty. After that, Li Yuan and Li Shimin gradually defeated many separatist forces at the end of the Sui Dynasty, and ended the chaos at the end of the Sui Dynasty. Li Shimin attacked many other foreign enemies such as Turk, Tuyuhun, western regions and Xue Yan Tuo after he ascended the throne and expanded to occupy Hetao, desert, north, West, Annan and other places, and established control in these areas, which led to the Tang Dynasty's long-term domination of these areas.
The Tang Dynasty has perfected politics. three departments and six ministries The political system has been completed, the education system has been completed, and a more complete law has been formulated. Economically Equal land system To encourage farmers to reclaim wasteland and stabilize peasants' lives, so that peasants can get rid of the semi slave type attachment status in the Wei, Jin and Sui dynasties, and have achieved relatively independent status.
Tang adopted loose policies on commerce, convenient transportation, unified currency and weights and measures, and unprecedented active trade in commodities and culture. Capital There are many "two hundred and twenty elements" of Chinese and foreign merchants in Changan. It is a gathering place for envoys and merchants, as well as an open international city.Tang's handicraft industry is also very developed. It has both official shops and private shops, and silk, gold and silver implements and "tri colored glazed pottery" have already been achieved. Perfection in one's studies The point. The Tang Dynasty has no longer "exclusive Confucianism", but let Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism serve as an example. This has also objectively promoted the opening of politics and national integration, and promoted the prosperity of economy and culture and art. The national power of the Tang Dynasty was strong and prestige spread far and wide. East Asia The majority of the peasants were exempt from military service. In such a more fresh and free atmosphere, the Tang Dynasty was full of self confidence and formed a high quality, free and easy, cheerful and healthy style in culture. Before and after the Tang Dynasty, both prose, poetry, legend, architecture, music, painting, sculpture, acrobatics, dance, calligraphy and arts and crafts have made great achievements and achieved great success. Qin and Han Dynasties Prosperity. In the Tang Dynasty, daring and willing to absorb foreign cultures and integrate the cultures of all ethnic groups in the country, their literature and art had distinct characteristics of the times both in content and form. The culture of the Tang Dynasty is far from overseas. Iran Japan, Korea,South Asian Subcontinent , Arab East Rome Empire and even Africa Both have far-reaching effects.
Late Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was severely weakened by the internal rebellion of an Shi rebellion. After the rebellion, the three towns in the Tang Dynasty were established in Hebei. According to historian Zhang Guogang's Monographs on the study of fan towns in the Tang Dynasty, most of the towns in the second half of the Tang Dynasty did not separate themselves from each other. Only a few separate towns were established, but they also implemented the policy and decrees of the Tang Dynasty to a certain extent. In the late Tang Dynasty, when Huang Chao's rebellion appeared, there was widespread separation of powers.
In the late Tang Dynasty, industry and Commerce had made great progress. "Silk cloth is made of clothing, linen cloth is a pouch, felt hat is a cover, leather skin is belt, Nei Qiu white Weng ou, end stream purple stone inkstone, the world has no common value." Officials in the Tang Dynasty ordered the ban on officials from doing business, which is conducive to the development and growth of non-governmental ordinary business people. In the Tang Dynasty, the official also ordered that "the merchants should be allowed to sell goods, and they should not be forbidden to trade", which is conducive to the development of Commerce.
The Tang Dynasty invented block printing. Block printing was widely used in the late Tang Dynasty. Although Bi Sheng invented the movable type printing in Song Dynasty, it was not practical. In the Song Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty and Ming Dynasty, woodblock printing was still used in the Tang Dynasty.
In the 881 year, Huang Chao captured Changan, and the Tang Dynasty quickly attacked Huang Chao. When Huang Chao's rebellion took advantage of the powerful warlords, the former Huang Chao Department would surrender the generals of the Tang Dynasty, Zhu Wen, to abandon Tang Di and build up the rear beams. Before that, all the local governors had become kings, forming the main part of ten countries.
The five generation and ten countries
Since the end of Tang Dynasty Zhu Quan Zhong Usurping Tang to support oneself, changing the national identity as Liang, and establishing capital in Kaifeng. After Zhu Liang, the dynastic dynasties were Tang, Jin, Han and Zhou, and Liang and he were called the Five Dynasties. In addition to the Five Dynasties, there were many other separatist forces in the southern part of China, namely, the ten dynasties, including Wu, Chu, min, Wu Yue, Qian Shu, Hou Shu, Southern Han, Southern Tang, Jingnan and Northern Han, and were collectively referred to as ten nations. History is called the five generation and ten countries, but there are actually more than ten countries.
The first dynasty of the five generation was the Zhu Liang Dynasty built by Zhu Quanzhong and usurped Tang Dynasty, which improved some political disadvantages of the Tang Dynasty. The rear beam was destroyed by the enemy's Revenge in Li Cunxu's later Tang Dynasty.
In the later Tang Dynasty, Emperor Li Siyuan, a more enlightened emperor, carried out many policies of benefiting the country and the people, which led to a well-off society. However, his successor was destroyed by his son-in-law Shi Jingyu at the cost of Sixteen States of Yan Yun.
Shi Jing Fu The father of Qidan, who was younger than his younger brother, was appointed by Emperor Qidan to be emperor of the great Jin Dynasty. But the wealth has flowed into the Treasury of the Khitan people. Even the son of Shi Jing, the son of the foster child, was unwilling to do so. Under the advice of the minister Jing Yanguang, he called the "sun" not to give up the excuse of Khitan, attempting to change the paying relationship with Khitan. But the Qidan people used the swinging soldiers to go south to destroy the Jin Jin and take Shi Zhonggui as the answer.
After the Jin Dynasty was extinguished, the Liao regime failed to stand in the Central Plains, withdrew from the north and established Li Congyi as the master of the Central Plains, Taiyuan. Liu Zhi Yuan Kill Li Congyi, seize the Central Plains, establish himself as emperor, and establish the Great Han Empire.
His son, Liu Chengyou, was defeated by Guo Wei, but he was replaced by Guo Wei for the great week. Guo Wei and his adopted son. Chai Rong In the five generation of Ming Jun, under their management, they gradually strengthened and gradually unified China. But Chai Rong's successor, Chai Zong, was a seven year old child who was unable to control the whole world. Eventually, Zhao Kuangyin was hung up under Chen Qiao's hands. Later, under the management of Zhao Kuangyin, the Song Dynasty finally unified China and ended the great division of the Five Dynasties.
Song and Yuan Dynasties
From 907 years Rear girder Build up to 1368 Yuan Dynasty Death is the Chinese feudalism.
The further strengthening of social integration and the continuous development of feudal economy.
The five generation and ten countries During the period, the South was relatively stable and the economy developed greatly. In the later period of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms, the latter week became stronger and stronger, which laid the foundation for the end of the separatist separatist situation.
Northern Song Dynasty After the establishment, a series of measures to strengthen centralization were adopted to end the split up in the last years of the Tang Dynasty, which basically unified the whole country, and the feudal economy continued to develop. In the middle of the Northern Song Dynasty, there were financial difficulties and other crises, in order to overcome the crisis of governance. Wang Anshi Reform has been carried out. At the end of the Northern Song Dynasty, politics was rotten, and the empty soldiers were left behind. In 1127, Southern Song Dynasty With the establishment of a confrontation between song and Jin, the north and south economy has undergone new development.
In the Northern Song Dynasty, the main ethnic minority political power was established by the Khitan people, including the gold which was replaced by the Liao nationality, and the summer founded by the party. The war between the various ethnic groups has continued, and economic and cultural exchanges have also been intensified.
Mongol Tie Mu Zhen (after being called Gen Gi Khan) unified the ministries of Mongolia and established the Mongolia regime. Gen Gi Khan and his descendants launched a large-scale war on neighboring countries and regions. The unification of Yuan Dynasty established by Kublai promoted the development of multi-ethnic country. Yuan Dynasty Provincial System It effectively controlled the whole country.
During the song and Yuan Dynasties, the economic contacts among various ethnic groups were frequent. Handicraft industry, commerce and urban economy were unprecedentedly prosperous. China's ties with Asia, Europe and Africa were strengthened, and cultural science and technology reached a high level of prosperity.
Liao, Jin and Xia
Liao Dynasty, or great Liao or Liao Also known as Qidan Liao Liao is a minority regime established in the history of China by the Khitan people. The original name of the Liao Dynasty was the Khitan kingdom. It was founded in 916. The founding monarch was Liao Tai zhe Yali Aobao. In 947 years, it was named "Liao". In 983 years, it was renamed "Qidan". In 1066, the title of "Liao" was restored, until Liao was destroyed by gold in 1125. After the fall of the Liao Dynasty, Yale Dashi moved west to the Chu River Basin in Central Asia and established the Western Liao Dynasty. In 1211, the law was usurped. In 1125, it was destroyed by the kingdom of Jin. Liao in the exchanges with the Central Plains and Western countries, it has brought together a lot of people, and has effectively promoted the rapid development of Khitan politics, economy and culture.
In a relatively short period of time, Liao formed a slave society from the tribal society, and ruled the northern part of China in the process of leaping forward to the feudal society. It has played an important role in the development of Mongolia and Northeast China. They created brilliant civilization and left the glorious history of Qidan.
Nu Zhen flourishing today Heilongjiang , Songhua River Drainage basin and Changbai Mountain area. In January 28, 1115, the Nu Zhen leader, Wan Yan and Gu Gu, was named "emperor Daikin".After the founding of the Jin Dynasty, the battle of Liao Liao was launched as the strategic goal of Liao five Beijing. In the Five Dynasties, Liao Dynasty was destroyed. After the destruction of Liao Dynasty, it became an enemy country with the Northern Song Dynasty. After finishing the throne, Emperor Taizong took over the power of Liao and quickly swept across the South and died in the Northern Song Dynasty in five years (AD 1127). After eradicating the Liao Dynasty and the Northern Song Dynasty, nu Zhen unified the vast northern areas including the the Yellow River River Basin, and maintained a long-term confrontation with the Southern Song Dynasty. During the implementation of the unique system such as Meng and Ke, the Jin Dynasty adopted many political systems in the mainland. When he was in power, he launched a large-scale war on the Southern Song Dynasty, but failed. When Jin was in line with the Southern Song Dynasty and Xixia, he forced the Western Xia Dynasty to attach to the Southern Song Dynasty and humiliated the Southern Song Dynasty. In the later period of the Jin Dynasty, the ruling group was extremely corrupt, and the uprising of all nationalities surged and surged. At the same time, the imperial army of Mongolia continued to attack and finally subjugated the country.
During the Jin Dynasty, with the deepening of feudalism, the social and economic development was certain. In addition to the advantages of animal husbandry, its agriculture, handicrafts and business have also improved. The culture of Jin Dynasty was deeply influenced by the Han people, and the corresponding achievements were achieved. Among them, the drama was more prominent and produced the famous writers such as Yuan Hao Wen.
Xixia is an empires dominated by the party family. Since the southern and Northern Dynasties, the Dang Xiang people who lived in the southeastern part of Qinghai were strong and strong. They were attached to the Central Plains in the Sui and Tang Dynasties. The residence of the state and government leaders was named by Wang Zhaoci Lee.
After Li Yuanhao succeeded, he carried out a series of strategies to improve his national consciousness, abolishing the surnames of Tang and Song Dynasties, changing his surname and his name, and his son (Qingtian Zi). Subsequently, Li Yuanhao carried out a series of reforms such as changing hairstyles, setting clothes, writing characters, simple etiquette, establishing official system and so on, and promoted the state to become the Xingqing government, expanding the palace city, and preparing for the founding of the country to become emperor. The Song dynasty built the great Xia empire. Yuan Hao officially became emperor in Daqing in three years (Song Baoyuan year, 1038) in October 11th. The reform of the Yuan Dynasty was made by law. He sent the envoys to the Song Dynasty and asked the Song Dynasty to officially recognize his emperor's title. In 1041 and 1042, Yuan Hao's forces defeated Song Jun in good rivers and three rivers. Song Renzong had to seal Yuan Hao as king Xia. Xixia territory, east of the Yellow River, west boundary Yumen Pass (now Gansu Dunhuang West small Fang Pancheng), South to Xiao Guan (now Gansu ring County North), north to the desert. The twenty-two states under the jurisdiction include Ningxia and Shaanxi, northwest Gansu, northeast Qinghai and Inner Mongolia.
After the accession of de Wang to the throne, the Mongolian army attacked heavily in Xixia state. In the 1226 ad, Gen Gi Khan took part in Suzhou and Ganzhou, and went to the East, crossed the desert, crossed the Yellow River, captured Ying Li (today's central defender) and Xiping government. In January 1227, Gen Gi Khan stayed in the army and continued to besieged the Xingqing government. He led the army down south and captured the state of Jishi. He arrived in Longde in April and sent troops to capture Tokugawa Yushu. In May, Gen Gi Khan went to the six Panshan mountain to escape the summer heat. In June, he was surrendered by the Xixia official. In July, a generation of Tianjiao Gen Gi Khan died of illness, and his army was afraid of the change of Xia Xia. He killed Li, on the way to the army. Since then, Xixia has been destroyed for 190 years in Mongolia.
Ming and Qing Dynasties
From 1368 The Ming Dynasty Build up to 1840 Opium War burst
The first stop is the consolidation of the unified multi-ethnic country in feudal China and the gradual decline of the feudal system.
In 1368, Zhu Yuanzhang The Ming Dynasty was established. In the early Ming Dynasty, the Ming government adopted a series of measures to strengthen centralization and develop the economy. In order to strengthen the military defense force, Ming Cheng Zu Yongle Building and moving capital Beijing 。 In order to consolidate northern border defense, the Ming government built the the Great Wall on the north side. In order to further strengthen ties with overseas countries, the Ming government dispatched leader of Ming naval expeditions Seven envoy The West 。 In the middle and late Ming Dynasty, commodity economy The development in some places in the south of the Yangtze River appeared. The germ of capitalism 。 In the late Ming Dynasty, the feudal rule was decadent, and social contradictions became increasingly acute. Li Zicheng The peasant uprising led by the Ming Dynasty was overthrown.
One thousand six hundred and sixteen
Year, Nur Ha Che Established the regime of the Nu nationality. Later Jin 。 In 1636, hong taiji The official name is Ching. Shunzhi After accession to the throne, in 1644, Shanhaiguan was appointed to Beijing and defeated. Li Zicheng It has been established. Qing Dynasty 。 In order to further strengthen the centralization of authoritarianism, the rulers of the early Qing Dynasty established cabinet , the Six Boards It has also been added. South study , Military Office In order to control the people from the mind, the Qing government has been rising again and again. Literary inquisition To suppress intellectuals' anti - Qing thought.
In the early Ming and early Qing Dynasties, a unified multi-ethnic country was consolidated. Zheng Chenggong Recover Taiwan Qing Dynasty set up Taiwan Prefecture Beat Russia For ChinaHeilongjiang The struggle against the river valley has safeguarded the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country. The Qing government smashed Galdan Boshugtu Khan The separatist activities, the size of the peace and the rebellion of Zhuo, have been strengthened. Tibet The jurisdiction of the multi-ethnic country has been further consolidated.
During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, several summing up scientific and technological works appeared, and anti idealism with progressive democratic thinkers emerged. There are also some excellent novels in literature. 。
Late Qing Dynasty
Opium War Before, China was an independent and feudal country. Because China's natural economy dominating, China and Britain are in the right trade, China
Out of the league. Britain smuggled into China in order to change the situation of trade surplus. opium 。 The import of opium has brought serious disasters to the Chinese nation. The people strongly demanded no smoking. 1839Lin Zexu The leading anti smoking campaign Britain The aggressors dealt a heavy blow. In 1840, Britain launched the Opium War against China. In the war, the vast numbers of patriotic officers and soldiers Sanyuanli The people fought bravely. But because the Qing government pursued a compromise policy, it finally led to the failure of the war. In 1842, the British forced the Qing government to sign the Sino British " Nanjing treaty China's independence and territorial integrity began to be destroyed and began to fall from feudal society. Semi colonial and semi feudal society 。 During the war, some patriotic intellectuals woke up, and a new trend of thought "learning from the west" sprouted. China was forced into the capitalist world market from then on.
1856-1860 years The second Opium War It is the war of aggression against China launched by Britain and France in order to expand the interests of aggression. The United States and Russia sit at the expense of fishermen. The four countries forced the Qing government to sign the treaty. Treaty of Tientsin "," Beijing treaty Such unequal treaties have made China lose more territory and sovereignty, and the forces of foreign aggression have expanded to the coastal provinces and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. The degree of semi colonization of Chinese society has further deepened.
After the Opium War, the class contradictions in the Qing Dynasty were unprecedentedly intensified, and the peasant uprising was surging. In 1851, best-known leader of the Taiping Rebellion Launched Jintian Uprising And established Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Regime; in 1853, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom was established. Tianjing Promulgated the " Tian Mu system In 1856, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom reached its heyday; the internal contradictions of the leading group were intensified. Tianjing Incident It greatly damaged the vitality of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom; in 1864, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom failed. The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom movement led by Hong Xiuquan embodies the characteristics of the peasant war in the new era. Some leaders of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom began to seek truth from the west, explore the way of China's independence and prosperity, and take the task of fighting against feudalism and aggression. The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom movement is the peak of China's peasant war.
In the Qing Dynasty, the ruling class appeared in 1860s. Westernization school 。 From 60s to 90s. They set off a "long skill to make foreigners". Westernization Movement 。 Westernization Movement did not make China strong and prosperous, but objectively stimulated the development of Chinese capitalism.
In the 60 and 70s of nineteenth Century, the capitalist mode of production appeared in Chinese society, and the Chinese national bourgeoisie came into being. China National bourgeoisie There are both revolutionary and compromising aspects to foreign capitalist aggression and domestic feudalism oppression. The Chinese proletariat came into being in 1840s, earlier than the national bourgeoisie. It is the representative of China's new productive forces. It has the most resolute and thorough revolutionary nature.
In the latter half of the nineteenth Century, imperialism became more and more aggressive against China as world capitalism moved to imperialism. In 1883 and 1894, there was an outbreak. Sino French warand Sino-Japanese Jiawu War 。 " Sino French New Testament The signing of the treaty further opened the door to southwest China. Treaty of Shimonoseki The signing of the treaty has greatly deepened the semi colonization of Chinese society.
After the signing of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, the imperialist powers launched fierce competition in capital export in China. They also occupied the "leased land" in China, divided the "sphere of influence", set off the frenzy of China and deepened the Chinese national crisis unprecedentedly.
After the Sino Japanese war in 1895, the national bourgeoisie began to serve as a new political force on the historical stage due to the unprecedented serious national crisis and the initial development of Chinese national capitalism. with Kang You wei , Liang Qichao The bourgeois reformists headed by the group, in order to save the nation from peril and develop capitalism, set off Reform and Reform Sports. with Empress Dowager Ci Xi The coup of the feudal and stubborn conservative forces, which was represented by the coup, brought the reform reform to failure. A history of the reform movement. Reform movement in 1898 。
In the late nineteenth Century, the outbreak occurred in North China. Boxer Movement 。 This movement smashed the arrogant plan of imperialist powers to divide up China, and dealt a heavy blow to the reactionary rule of the Qing government and accelerated its demise. In the summer of 1900, Britain, Russia, Japan, France, Germany, the United States, Italy and Austria. Eight-Nation Alliance Invading China. In 1901, the Qing government was forced to join the eight countries. Belgium ,Netherlands , Spain And so on, 11 countries signed the "humiliation". Boxer Protocol " This marks the formation of China's semi colonial and semi feudal society.
Revolution of 1911
In 1894, Sun Yat-sen Founded China Bourgeois class The first revolutionary organization Xing Zhong Hui 。 At the end of the nineteenth Century, the revolution of 1911
The founder of modern Chinese Education He Zi Yuan Qiu Fengjia and others opened up the first place to exclude the interference of the stubborn conservative forces, successfully introduced western learning, founded new schools, and incorporated civilian education into the vision of the Qing court. Under the pressure of the situation, the Qing government had to innovate in education. At the end of 1905, the new school system was promulgated, the imperial examination system was abolished, and the new schools were promoted throughout the country. In 1909, when the local imperial examinations stopped, Western LearningGradually become the main form of school education. This is the fundamental change in the way of education, which has been surging. Revolution of 1911 And the national construction has trained a large number of valuable talents with innovative ideas and progress.
In the early twentieth Century, bourgeois-democratic revolution Ideas have been widely disseminated. renowned for studies in philology and textual criticism , Zou Rong , Tian Hua Chen And other famous thinkers and propagandist of democratic revolution. With the wide spread of democratic revolution thought, bourgeois revolutionary organizations have been established one after another. 1905 China Alliance The establishment of China's bourgeois democratic revolution has entered a new stage. The revolutionaries adopted loyalist The debate made the democratic revolution further spread, and effectively promoted the arrival of the climax of the democratic revolution.
After the founding of the league, the revolutionary party launched pingliu Li and Guangzhou. Huang Gang Gang And a series of uprising. Sichuan It happened. Road protection movement 。 October 1911 Wuchang Uprising Success. On New Year's day in 1912, Sun Zhongshan was there. Nanjing Assume the post of temporary president, declare Republic of China It was established and then promulgated. Provisional constitution of the Republic of China "
The revolution of 1911 was a national democratic revolution in a relatively complete sense in modern China. It has brought the Chinese people the role of emancipation that cannot be underestimated politically and ideologically. The revolution of 1911 created a completely modern national democratic revolution, overthrowing the autocratic monarchy that ruled China for thousands of years, establishing a republican system of government and ending the autocratic monarchy. Spread the idea of Democratic Republic, greatly promoted the Chinese nation's ideological emancipation, and pushed China's social transformation with great shock and influence.
Early Republic of China
In March 1912, high Qing official Usurped the revolution of 1911
The fruit became a temporary president of the Republic of China and the interim government moved to Beijing. After the interim government moved to Beijing, headed by Yuan Shikai Beiyang warlords The regime was established. Yuan Shikai's internal suppression The Kuomintang In order to sell state sovereignty abroad, Sun Zhongshan called for force to discuss yuan, and the two revolution took place.Because of the power of the Kuomintang, the Beiyang army is strong. " The two revolution "It soon failed. After Yuan Shikai suppressed the two revolution, he began. Restoration Monarchy activities.Sun Zhongshan once again organized the army to discuss yuan, and the campaign of defending the nation broke out. Yuan Shikai was forced to abolish the monarchy and die in despair.
After Yuan Shikai's death, there was a situation of warlord separation in China. Xuzhou warlords Jang Hun Mediation " Dispute over government offices In the name of Beijing, Pu Yi was restored to the throne, but the restoration of the farce lasted only 12 days. Duan Qirui After ruling again, he refused to resume the provisional constitution and convene Parliament. In order to uphold the republican system, Sun Zhongshan advocated the law enforcement movement, but soon failed.
During the first World War, imperialism was busy with the war and temporarily relaxed its economic aggression against China. China's national industry appeared a "short spring" and got a short development.
New democratic revolution
The First World War During the period, with the further development of China's capitalist economy, the bourgeoisie strongly demanded bourgeois democracy in China.
Politics, against the rule of feudal warlords, the new culture movement came into being. In 1915, May Fourth leader Founded in ShanghaiNew Youth Become New Culture Movement The symbol of rising. "Democracy" and "science" are the slogans put forward by the new culture movement. The new culture movement set off a trend of ideological emancipation in the society. After the victory of the socialist revolution in Russia in October, Li Dazhao The propaganda of the October revolution has lifted the banner of socialism for the first time in China, thus bringing about a new development of the new culture movement.
Paris Peace Conference Rejected the justice demands of the Chinese representatives and aroused the strong indignation of the Chinese people. 1919 The May 4th Movement It broke out in Beijing. In the early June, the movement developed into a nationwide mass patriotic movement with the working class as its main force and achieved initial success. 54 sports are of great historical significance. The 54 Movement has been unveiled. New democratic revolution The prelude has opened the beginning of China's new democratic revolution. From then on, Proletariat On the political stage, the power of the masses has been widely launched, which not only makes the 54 movement itself. New democratic revolution The basic connotation of the Communist Party of China has directly created the conditions for class, ideology and cadres for the founding of the Communist Party of China.
54 after exercise, Marx doctrine Spread in China and become the mainstream of new trend of thought. A group of advanced elements Marx doctrine Same with China Worker movement Initial integration. In 1920, Communism The group has been established in various places. 1921 The Communist Party of China "one big" convened. Communist Party of China It was born. In 1922, the "two big" CPC formulated the program for democratic revolution, and pointed out the direction for the Chinese revolution.
Under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, from January 1922 Hongkong seafarers strike By the February 1923 Beijing Han railway workers' strike, the Chinese workers' movement had its first climax.
The National Revolution
From January 1924 to July 1927 The first domestic Revolutionary War Period. The first domestic revolutionary war was the war against imperialism and Beiyang warlords under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party. 。
after 27 Massacre The Chinese Communist Party recognizes that rely on Working class The strength is not enough. Only by uniting all the forces that can unite, can the Chinese revolution lead to victory. For this reason, the Communist Party of China decided to do the same. Sun Yat-sen Leading The Kuomintang We should work together to establish a revolutionary united front. In January 1924, the Chinese KuomintangGuangzhou The first National Congress was held. Kuomintang "one big" The convening marked the realization of the cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party and the formal establishment of the revolutionary united front. Then, in the Chinese Communist Party and Soviet UnionWith the help of the Kuomintang, the Kuomintang established a military academy in Whampoa, Guangzhou, which laid the foundation for the establishment of the national revolutionary army. 。
After the Kuomintang, the anti imperialist and anti feudal movement of the national revolution began rapidly. Workers from all over the country went on strike and set off the climax of the anti imperialist patriotic movement. May 30 Movement andCanton-Hong Kong strike The peasant movement in Guangdong, Hunan and other provinces gradually developed, and the Guangdong revolutionary government also founded a workshop to train the backbone of the peasant movement; the two East expedition. Chen Jiong Ming After that, the Guangdong revolutionary base area was consolidated and unified. After the first East expedition, the national government was established in Guangzhou, and the national army was compiled into the national revolutionary army. 。
In order to topple imperialism, overthrow warlords and unite China, the Kuomintang government started the northern expedition. The Northern Expeditionary Army entered the Yangtze Valley in less than half a year. The northern expedition was strongly supported by the workers and peasants movement. The victory of the Northern Expedition promoted the movement of workers and peasants, and the armed uprising of the workers in Shanghai was victorious. 。
After the death of Sun Zhongshan in March 1925, the Rightists of the Kuomintang intensified their struggle for revolutionary leadership. In 1927, Jiang Jieshi The "four. One or two" counter revolution coup was launched. intimate of Sun Yat-senLaunched "July 1 Five" counter revolutionary coup 。 During this period, May Fourth leader The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China has committed a crime. Right capitulation Mistake. The national revolution failed. 。
From August 1927 to July 1937 The second domestic Revolutionary War Period. The second domestic revolutionary war was the war of the Chinese people against the Kuomintang's reactionary rule under the leadership of the Communist Party of China.
"Four. One or two" counter revolutionary coup Later, Jiang Jieshi It was established in Nanjing. National Government 。Shortly afterwards, the Kuomintang government held the northern expedition, occupying Beijing and serving as warlords. Zhang Ling Lin Retreat to outside. placed under house arrest "The northeast is changed" and is subordinate to the national government. In this way, the national government unified the whole country in form. But the Kuomintang's new army's mixed battle has brought great disaster to the people. Under the rule of the Kuomintang government, the four big families quickly accumulated huge wealth by virtue of the state power and became the representative of the bureaucrat comprador bourgeoisie in China.
The Communist Party of China convened in 1927 "87" meeting It corrected Chen Duxiu's right capitulation mistake and launched it. Nanchang Uprising , Autumn Harvest Uprising and Guangzhou Uprising Create the Red Army Opening up rural base areas Land revolution And opened up one. Rural Encircling Cities The way to seize power by armed forces. Then, the red army won the three anti "encirclement and suppression" campaign. At the same time, the Chinese Soviet regime was established.
1931 , Japan Launched an invasion of Northeast China. September 18 Incident 。 Because of the Kuomintang's policy of non resistance, the three northeastern provinces were destroyed. Japan's support Pu Yi Be a puppet emperor, set up Puppet Manchuria To colonize Northeast China. 。 In 1932, Japan launched an invasion of Shanghai. "One twenty eight" incidentAnd gained the Japanese presence. Shanghai Right 。
In July 7, 1937, Japanese forces attacked. Lugou Bridge The Chinese Army rose to fight back. Counter-Japanese War The prelude is thus uncovered. In August 13th, when the Japanese attacked Shanghai, the Kuomintang government was forced to fight against Japan. In late September, the Kuomintang announced the Declaration on cooperation between the CPC and the Communist Party submitted by the Communist Party of China. Counter-Japanese National United Front Formally formed, the whole nation started the war of resistance against Japan.
At the beginning of the war of resistance against Japan, the Kuomintang government organized many battles against the Japanese aggressors in the frontal battlefield, but implemented a unilateral Anti Japanese War route, and lost a large number of land. The Communist Party of China carried out a comprehensive anti Japanese War and implemented the policy of a lasting war of resistance against Japan. Eight Route Army , The New Fourth Army After the enemy's war, extensive guerrilla warfare was launched and many anti Japanese base areas were established, and great victories were achieved.
In October 1938, Japanese occupation Guangzhou , Wuhan After that, the war of resistance against Japan entered a stalemate. Japanese imperialism imposed political attraction on the Kuomintang, and betrayal the enemy by the pro Japanese faction in the Kuomintang, and the Anti Japanese War of the pro British British faction in the Kuomintang gradually became negative, creating an anti Communist friction incident, and the Chinese Communist Party gave a resolute counterattack and merciless revelation. In the difficult years of the war of resistance against Japan, in order to overcome difficulties and win the war of resistance, the Chinese Communist Party adopted a series of measures politically, economically and ideologically, and finally passed through the most difficult period.
In 1944, liberated area The army and the people began a partial counterattack. In April 1945, the Communist Party of China convened the Seventh National Congress of the Communist Party of China. In August 8th, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan. In August 9th, Mao Zedong A call for "the last battle of the Japanese aggressors" was issued, and the war of resistance against Japan entered the great counter offensive. In August 15th, the Japanese government announced an unconditional surrender and signed an unconditional surrender in September 2nd. After fourteen years of hard struggle, the Chinese people achieved a great victory in the war of resistance against Japan.
War of Liberation
After the victory of the war of resistance against Japan, in August 1945, Mao Zedong Went to Chongqing to negotiate with Kuomintang, representatives of Kuomintang and the Communist Party
Signed the " Double Tenth agreement " However, during the negotiations, the Kuomintang sent troops to attack Jiefang District. Jiefang District's army and civilians beat the Kuomintang's military offensive. The representatives of the KMT and the CPC signed an armistice agreement.Chongqing Convened Political Consultative Conference 。
In the summer of 1946, the Kuomintang troops attacked Jiefang District under the assistance of US imperialism and broke out in full civil war.
From the summer of 1946 to June 1947, the people's Liberation Army smashed the comprehensive offensive and focused attack of the Kuomintang army. At the end of June 1947, the people's Liberation Army started a nationwide counterattack. From September 1948 to January 1949, the people's liberation army launched Liao Shen, Huai Hai and Ping Jin successively. three famous battles before foundation of People's Republic of China It basically eliminated the main force of the Kuomintang army and accelerated the victory of the people's Liberation War in the whole country. In April 1949, the people's Liberation Army crossed the river and liberated Nanjing on the 23 th. The Kuomintang Jiang Jieshi group has defeated Taiwan and has not been unified so far.
In September 1949, the first session of the Chinese people's Political Consultative Conference marked the victory of the Chinese people's democratic revolution.
The founding of new China
In 1949, The People's Republic of China establish Fixed capital Beijing 。
Held in Tiananmen square, Beijing, October 1, 1949. Founding ceremony Mao Zedong, chairman of the Central People's government, declared that People's Republic of China was formally established.
At the beginning of the founding of the people's Republic of China, the Chinese government succeeded in completing the land reform in the area that accounts for more than 90% of the total agricultural population in the country, and three hundred million farmers got about 47 million hectares of land. The first five year plan implemented from 1953 to 1957 has made great achievements: the average annual growth rate of national income is more than 8.9%; a number of basic industries, which are necessary for the industrialization of the country, have not been established in the past, including aircraft and automobile manufacturing, heavy and precision machine manufacturing, power generation equipment manufacturing, metallurgical and mining equipment manufacturing, and advanced alloy steel and non-ferrous metal smelting. At the same time, we carried out three major transformations, transforming the private ownership of productive means into socialist public ownership, and basically establishing a socialist economic system.
From 1957 to 1966, it was a period of large-scale socialist construction in China. In 1966 compared with 1956, the national industrial fixed assets increased by 3 times the original price, and the national income increased by 58% at comparable prices; the output of major industrial products increased by several times or even more than ten times; and agricultural infrastructure and technological transformation were launched in a large scale. From May 1966 to October 1976, the ten year of the "Cultural Revolution", the state and people suffered the most serious setbacks and losses since the founding of the people's Republic of China.
1976 Ten In June, Jiang Qing's counter revolutionary group was smashed. " The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution China has entered a new historical period. Deng Xiaoping Since the end of 1978, the CPC has been re launched since the third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee. Reform and Opening-up The policy should focus on socialist modernization. By reforming the economic system and political system, we have gradually established a road of socialist modernization with Chinese characteristics. Since the reform and opening up, China has undergone profound changes in its appearance, rapid economic development and remarkable improvement in people's living standards. 。
1989 Jiang Zemin Served as general secretary of the CPC Central Committee and assumed office in 1993. President Leading the third generation of China's leading collective, adhering to and inheriting the national policy of reform and opening up advocated by Deng Xiaoping, China has shown a prosperous situation of political stability, rapid economic development and vigorous diplomacy.
In 1992, the 14th National Congress of the Communist Party of China put forward the goal of China's economic restructuring. Socialist market economy system The goal of the Chinese government in July 1, 1997 Hong Kong In December 20, 1999, the Chinese government resumed its exercise of sovereignty. Macao resume the exercise of sovereignty 。 By the beginning of twenty-first Century, China had basically established a socialist market economic system, and its per capita GNP has been increasing. By 2011, China surpassed Japan to become the second largest economy in the world, second only to the United States.
In November 2002, The Communist Party of China in the first Plenary Session of the 16th CPC Central Committee Up, Hu Jintao Elected General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee; in March 2003, at the Ten Session of the National People's Congress, Hu Jintao was elected chairman of the National People's Congress, and Wu Bangguo was elected Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.
In November 2012, on the the first Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, Xi Jinping Elected as the general secretary of the CPC Central Committee and the core of the fifth generation of collective leadership of the Communist Party of China, in March 2013, The twelve session of the National People's Congress Up, Xi Jinping Elected president, Zhang Dejiang was elected chairman of the Standing Committee of the twelve National People's Congress. China continues to move towards the goal of building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way.