Roast duck is a world-renowned Beijing dish, which originated in the Northern and Southern Dynasties of China. It has been recorded in the Record of Food Treasures and was a palace food at that time. Peking duck is a high quality meat duck. It is roasted with charcoal. Its color is red, its meat is fat but not greasy. It is crisp and tender outside. Beijing roast duck is divided into two main schools, and the most famous roast duck shop in Beijing is also a representative of two schools. It is red and lustrous, delicate meat, mellow taste, fat and not greasy features, known as the "world delicious".
According to legend, the beauty of roast duck is derived from the precious varieties of Beijing duck, it is the world's best meat duck. It is said that this special pure Peking duck was raised about a thousand years ago, because the emperors of the Liao, Jin and Yuan Dynasties hunted, and occasionally captured this pure white wild duck breed, and later for hunting, has been kept, and only then obtained this fine pure breed, and bred into today's precious meat duck breed. That is to say, a white duck fattened by feeding method is named "duck filling". Not only that, Beijing duck has spread to Europe and America in the past hundred years, and it has been amazing through breeding. Therefore, Beijing duck, as a good quality variety, has been the source of the world's most valuable duck species.
In the early Ming Dynasty, the common people liked to eat Nanjing slab duck, and the emperor liked to eat it too. It is said that Zhu Yuanzhang, the emperor of the Ming Dynasty, had "a roast duck for a solar eclipse". Royal chefs at the palace tried every means to develop new ways of eating duck sauces to please the longevity, so they developed two kinds of duck, the fork roast duck and the roast duck in the oven. Barbecued roast duck is represented by Quanjude, while braised roast duck is the most famous one. Jinling roast duck is made from a large grass duck with a net weight of about 2.5 kg.
It is said that along with the Ming Dynasty Chengzu (Zhu Di) usurped the throne to move to Beijing, also took a lot of Nanjing roast duck masters by the way. During the Jiajing reign, roast duck was spread from the palace to the people. The old "Cheap Square" roast duck shop was opened in the alleys of Mishi city in Caishikou, which was also the first roast duck shop in Beijing. At that time, the name was "Jinling Piece Skin Duck", and there was a line of small letters on the front of the old "Cheap Square": Jinling Roast Duck.
In 1864, the most famous Quanjude roast duck restaurant in Beijing was opened, and the roast duck technology developed into the "hanging oven" era. It is roasted over open fire and has a special fragrance. It not only makes roast duck fragrant but also makes "Beijing roast duck" replace "Nanjing roast duck" and "Jinling slice duck" can only be seen on the menus of several southern cities such as Hong Kong, Macao, Shenzhen and Guangzhou.
After the founding of new China, the reputation of Beijing roast duck is increasing day by day, and it is more famous all over the world. Premier Zhou is said to be very appreciating and paying attention to this famous dish, entertaining foreign guests and saving roast duck. In order to meet the needs of social development, today's duck barbecue operation has been more modern, more precious flavor. Quanjude, the most brilliant of the Roast Duck Family, established the Beijing image ambassador status of the Roast Duck Family. Yang Quanren, the founder of Quanjude, was a small dealer in raw chicken and duck business. After accumulating capital, he founded Quanjude Roast Duck Store. He hired a master of roast duck who had been on duty in Qinggong Imperial Restaurant to roast duck delicately with the technology of "hanging oven roast duck" in the court, which made "hanging oven roast duck" multiply among the people. Quanjude adopts hanging oven instead of duck. Just make a small hole in the duck, take out the guts, then pour water into the duck's stomach, then tie it up and hang it on the fire. This method does not let the duck lose water because of being roasted and can make the skin of the duck swell and not be roasted soft, roasted duck skin is very thin and crisp, become the best part of roast duck. There is no furnace door in the furnace, with jujube and pear trees as fuel and open fire. When fruit trees are fired, smoke-free and primer are flourishing and burning time is long. The roasted duck has a full-bodied appearance, jujube red color, crisp skin, tender char outside, and with a fragrance of fruit and wood, tastes better. Strictly speaking, only this kind of roasting method is called Beijing roast duck. Compared with roast duck in the oven, the roast duck in the oven, represented by Yifang, seems to be less impressive. Fortunately, the cheaper place with a history of nearly 600 years, has applied for the protection of national intangible cultural heritage by roast duck in the oven. Founded in Yongle Ming Dynasty, Cheap Square Roast Duck has a history of nearly 600 years earlier than Quanjude. The so-called "braising furnace" is actually a kind of furnace, and the furnace body is made of bricks, about one meter in size. The method was first introduced from the south to Beijing, featuring "ducks do not see the open fire," which is made from charcoal fires in the furnace and roasted on the heated wall. Because of the need for dark fire, so the requirement is very high technology, the person in charge must handle the furnace temperature, high temperature, ducks will be roasted, otherwise unfamiliar. The roast duck skin is crisp and crispy, and its meat is white, tender and delicious. Braised roast duck is the sign of cheap house, but the braised stove of burning straw has changed to electric cooker. Nowadays, few roast duck shops use ovens. Most roast duck shops use Quanjude ovens. The roast duck is more tender and the juice of duck skin is more plump and full. The aroma of the roast duck in the oven seems to give a better understanding of the wisdom of the "roast" cuisine that was first mastered by humans.
Dadong Roast Duck Restaurant (slightly less famous than the above two, but it is also very delicious), in the center of Beijing and Guangzhou diagonally opposite, the dishes are very exquisite, really baked with apple wood, taste, taste can not be said. Mr. Dadong was born in Quanjude. You must try adding some garlic in the lotus leaf cake, which is exceptionally delicious. The waiter will teach you how to eat.
Today roast roast duck and braised roast duck are the two major schools of roast duck in Beijing. It's as if Beijing roast duck abandoned Shandong roast duck, many restaurants do roast duck, but also separately for the two traditional schools, made suitable for modern taste and consumer thinking improvement. For example, the key interpretation of roast duck skin, such as the special selection of Duck Breeds by Xiaowangfu, and even many places will be changed into Cucumber slices, these deformation and improvement are good, as for some places made of what the golden foil roast duck, there is a little mysterious taste. Of course, the authentic roast duck shop is naturally very good.
Traditional time-honored brand wins by technology
Quanjude, in the 9 trading days just listed, has frantically pulled out 8 daily trading boards, making people crazy. Xing Ying, general manager of Quanjude Group, has disclosed that the 400 million yuan raised by the listing will be used to upgrade the supply chain of Quanjude. At the same time, the electric roast duck stove developed by them will gradually spread to the storefront. As a result, the electronic roast duck stove has aroused many criticisms.
Some experts pointed out that the craftsmanship of Quanjude roast duck is a part of the traditional culture of Quanjude after a hundred years of inheritance. It should be preserved. If all the roast ducks are produced in an industrial production line, obviously the cultural connotation will be greatly reduced.
Automation and standardization are good things, but not the Bible of every industry. Quanjude was able to sell a set of 198 yuan at a high price, also because these roast ducks are hand-cooked art, rather than mass-produced industrial machinery. This is just like the selling of handicrafts now. " Consumers say so.
According to the survey, the key factors for the public to select the old brands are: original and mature technology (57.3%), rich cultural connotation (28.5%), complete social reputation and awareness (6.3%), representative services and products (5.2%) and continuous adoption of the latest technology (2.7%). 62.8% of the respondents worried that if they switched to an electronic oven, roast duck "will become a street fast food of KFC streams".
It is said that the roast duck still maintains its traditional techniques.
The main technology is the nutrition.
There are many famous roast duck halls in Cheap Square of old brands, such as stuffy roast duck, crispy roast duck and so on, which deserve to be boasted. In 2007, Professor Zhao Lin, the chief nutrition expert of China, took the third-party joint test results as a certificate and announced to the public that the nutritional analysis ingredients of crispy roast duck in Cheap Square were higher than those of traditional roast duck. The cheap furniture has made a small win in marketing by buying vegetables, crispy, patented, roast duck and playing nutrition cards.
The person in charge of Cheap Shop said that the purpose of hiring nutrition consultants is to promise customers that Cheap Shop not only pays attention to customers'dietary preferences, but also pays more attention to their healthy diet. The patented roast duck with vegetable and crisp flavor is strictly trained and trained before it can produce a patent roast oven roast duck.
Professor Zhao Lin, nutrition expert, nutrition researcher of PLA General Hospital and chief health education expert of the Ministry of Health, released the nutritional analysis results of "Vegetable Crisp Roasted Duck" in Cheap Square by "Microelement Room of Nutrition Department of PLA General Hospital" and "National Vegetable Engineering Technology Research Center". The contents of mineral elements such as potassium, calcium and trace elements such as manganese, iron and copper in roast duck were significantly higher than those in common roast duck, while fat and calorie in breast meat were significantly decreased and carbohydrate content was increased, but the protein content in roast duck was not affected. The results showed that the cooking technology of crisp roast duck with vegetable sauce improved the health function of the food during the change of the tripod. The results of free amino acid determination showed that some amino acid components which affected the fishy smell of roast duck decreased significantly, while the amino acid components which increased the aroma and flavor increased significantly.
Through this nutritional appraisal, Cheap Square has labeled its roast duck "green roast duck", "healthy roast duck", "rest assured roast duck" and "nutritious roast duck". It is different from roast duck produced by other enterprises and has its own brand characteristics.
Segment market for high-end crowd
Beijing Dadong Roast Duck Restaurant (formerly Beijing roast duck shop) was founded in April 28, 1985. In 2001, it was restructured by state-run, and Dong Zhenxiang, the general manager, was nicknamed "Da Dong" by his friends. The Dadong Roast Duck restaurant with high-end positioning is also one of the main outlets for foreign guests to enjoy roast duck.
In 2007, two more plaques were added to the wall of the entrance hall of the Beijing Dadong Roast Duck Store: one was the "Five Diamonds" restaurant plate issued by the State Restaurant Assessment Committee, and the other was the "Five Stars" sign issued by the Beijing Tourism Bureau, which won a place in the battle for roast duck marketing. Workers at the Dadong Roast Duck Restaurant said the Beijing Dadong Roast Duck Restaurant was hailed as a must-see spot for foreigners in the Beijing Roast Duck Industry, excluding the Great Wall and Sanlitun, and was a highlight in the Beijing Tourist Guide edited by many foreigners.
Beijing Dadong Roast Duck Store plays a big cultural card, big books and cultural articles, adhere to their own high-end line. Set in Dadong Roast Duck Restaurant, looking around, the Ming and Qing Dynasties palace window lattice evolved from the wall, classic workmanship, bronze nails inlaid in which elegant and generous. Smoke skirt with bright yellow tablecloth in traditional Chinese culture will be skillful interpretation of cloth art, but not out of fashion, especially the bright yellow Chinese knot on the dining chair, become the highlight of the pen in the restaurant.
Outside the restaurant window, the bamboo leaves are green, the bamboo branches are tall and straight, leisurely, as if to be in the green mountains and waters of the bamboo elegant scholar, dining in such an elegant environment is not a "delicious dish" can express the mood. The comfortable and elegant dining environment, the quintessence of traditional culture and the ingenious combination of modern art constitute the fashionable humanistic beauty of Dadong Roast Duck Restaurant.